Bologna [boˈlɔnja, ital. boˈloɲɲa] ist eine italienische Universitätsstadt und Hauptstadt der .. der Homepage von Gedenkorte Europa – (deutsch) . Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'Bologna' in LEOs Italienisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für bologna im Online-Wörterbuch gruzowisko-rpg.eu ( Deutschwörterbuch). Bibliography of the history of Bologna. A bill proposing new nikoloz basilashvili in the field of Higher Education was presented to Parliament inand the new system came into force in July Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Bologna, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 53 peters casino promo code. Bologna is situated on the edge of the Po Plain at the foot of the Apennine Mountainsat the meeting of the Reno and Savena river valleys. Testi di Franco Bologna is twinned with:. Every attempt to escape or to rescue him failed, and he died after more than 22 years in captivity. In the long tradition of left-wing mayors was interrupted by the victory of the independent candidate Giorgio Guazzaloca, casino royale halloween party led a centre-right coalition; this brief experience ended in when Sergio Cofferatia former trade union leader, was elected. Big Game, Small World: Greece joined the Bologna Process 7reels casino bonus code Torta di risoa custard-like cake made of almonds, rice and amaretto, is made throughout the year. Although Serbia is a party, Kosovo declared independence from it and is theoretically a part of the Bologna Process since the war.
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In , Emperor Charles V was crowned in Bologna. In , the Piazza del Nettuno and the Palazzo dei Banchi were built, along with the Archiginnasio , the main building of the university.
The period of Papal rule saw also the construction of many churches and other religious establishments, and the restoration of older ones. At this time, Bologna had ninety-six convents, more than any other Italian city.
Painters working in Bologna during this period established the Bolognese School which includes Annibale Carracci , Domenichino , Guercino and others of European fame.
In the 17th century, the economy of Bologna started to show signs of severe decline as the global centres of trade shifted towards the Atlantic.
During the Italian Plague of —31 Bologna lost up to a third of its population. In the mids pope Benedict XIV , a Bolognese, tried to reverse the decline of the city with a series of reforms intended to stimulate the economy and promoting the arts.
However, these reforms achieved only mixed results. The economic and demographic decline of Bologna became even more noticeable starting from the second half of the 18th century.
In the city had 72, inhabitants, ranking as the second largest in the Papal States; however this figure had remained unchanged for decades.
The economy was stagnant because of Papal policies that distorted trade with heavy custom dues and sold concessions of monopolies to single manufacturers thus lowering competition, depressing productivity and incentivising corruption.
In Napoleon entered Bologna, making it the capital of the short lived Cispadane Republic , a client state of the French Empire.
After the fall of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna of placed Bologna once again under the oppressive rule of the Papal States , leading to the unsuccessful uprisings of By the mid s, unemployment levels were very high and traditional industries continued to languish or disappear; Bologna became a city of economic disparity with the top 10 percent of the population living of rent, another 20 percent exercising professions or commerce and 70 percent working in low-paid, often insecure manual jobs.
The Papal census of reported 10, permanent beggars and another 30, out of a total population of 70, who lived in poverty. Finally, in the aftermath of Second War of Italian Independence , when the French and Pidemontese troops expelled the Austrians from Italian lands, on 11 and 12 March Bologna voted for joining the new Kingdom of Italy.
In the last decades of the 19th century, Bologna once again thrived economically and socially. In Naples was linked to Rome by railway, and the following year Bologna to Florence.
As a consequence, the traditionally moderate elites of the city turned their back on the progressive faction and gave their support to the rising Fascist movement of Benito Mussolini.
During the interwar years , Bologna developed into an important manufacturing centre for food processing, agricultural machinery and metalworking.
The Fascist regime poured in massive investments, for example with the setting up of a giant tobacco manufacturing plant in Bologna suffered extensive damage during World War II.
The strategic importance of the city as an industrial and railway hub connecting northern and central Italy made it a strategic target for the Allied forces.
On 24 July , a massive aerial bombardment destroyed a significant part of the historic city centre and killed about people. The city was heavily bombed again on 25 September.
The raids, which this time were not confined to the city centre, left more than 1, people dead and thousands injured. After the armistice of , the city became a key centre of the Italian resistance movement.
By this time, the Germans had already largely left the city in the face of the Allied advance, spearheaded by Polish forces advancing from the east during the Battle of Bologna which had been fought since 9 April.
First to arrive in the centre was the 87th Infantry Regiment of the Friuli Combat Group under general Arturo Scattini , who entered the centre from Porta Maggiore to the south.
Since the soldiers were dressed in British outfits, they were initially thought to be part of the allied forces; when the local inhabitants heard the soldiers were speaking Italian, they poured out on to the streets to celebrate.
In the post-war years, Bologna became a thriving industrial centre as well as a political stronghold of the Italian Communist Party.
Between and , the city had an uninterrupted series of left-wing mayors , the first of whom was Giuseppe Dozza. At the end of the s the city authorities, worried by massive gentrification and suburbanisation , asked Japanese starchitect Kenzo Tange to sketch a master plan for a new town north of Bologna; however, the project that came out in was evaluated as way too much ambitious and expensive.
In Bologna was the scene of rioting linked to the Movement of , a spontaneous political movement of the time.
The alleged police shooting of a far-left activist, Francesco Lorusso , sparked two days of street clashes. On 2 August , at the height of the " years of lead ", a terrorist bomb was set off in the central railway station of Bologna killing 85 people and wounding , an event which is known in Italy as the Bologna massacre.
In , members of the neo-fascist group Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari were convicted for carrying out the attack, while Licio Gelli —Grand Master of the underground Freemason lodge Propaganda Due P2 —was convicted for hampering the investigation, together with three agents of the secret military intelligence service SISMI including Francesco Pazienza and Pietro Musumeci.
Commemorations take place in Bologna on 2 August each year, culminating in a concert in the main square. In the long tradition of left-wing mayors was interrupted by the victory of the independent candidate Giorgio Guazzaloca, who led a centre-right coalition; this brief experience ended in when Sergio Cofferati , a former trade union leader, was elected.
The next centre-left mayor, Flavio Delbono , elected in June , resigned in January after being involved in a corruption scandal.
After a month period in which the city was administered under Anna Maria Cancellieri as a state-appointed prefect , Virginio Merola was elected as mayor, leading a left-wing coalition comprising the Democratic Party , Left Ecology Freedom and Italy of Values.
Bologna is situated on the edge of the Po Plain at the foot of the Apennine Mountains , at the meeting of the Reno and Savena river valleys.
The last major event was in November The legislative body of the municipality is the City Council Consiglio Comunale , which is composed by 48 councillors elected every five years with a corrected proportional system granting the majority to the list or alliance of lists which receives more votes , contextually to the mayoral elections.
The executive body is the City Committee Giunta Comunale , composed by 12 assessors , that is nominated and presided over by a directly elected Mayor.
The municipality of Bologna is subdivided into six administrative Boroughs Quartieri , down from the former nine before the administrative reform.
Each Borough is governed by a Council Consiglio and a President, elected contextually to the city Mayor. The urban organization is governed by the Italian Constitution art.
The Boroughs have the power to advise the Mayor with nonbinding opinions on a large spectrum of topics environment, construction, public health, local markets and exercise the functions delegated to them by the City Council; in addition they are supplied with an autonomous founding in order to finance local activities.
Bologna is the capital of the eponymous metropolitan city and of Emilia-Romagna , one of the twenty regions of Italy. While the Province of Bologna has a population of 1,,,  making it the twelfth most populated province of Italy, Emilia-Romagna ranks as the sixth most populated region of Italy, with about 4.
The seat of the regional government is Fiera District , a tower complex designed by Japanese architect Kenzo Tange in Since 21 June Virginio Merola , as mayor of the capital city, has been the mayor of the Metropolitan City.
Due to its Roman heritage, the central streets of Bologna, today largely pedestrianized, follow the grid pattern of the Roman settlement.
The original Roman ramparts were supplanted by a high medieval system of fortifications, remains of which are still visible, and finally by a third and final set of ramparts built in the 13th century, of which numerous sections survive.
No more than twenty medieval defensive towers remain out of up to that were built in the 12th and 13th centuries before the arrival of unified civic government.
The most famous of the towers of Bologna are the central "Due Torri" Asinelli and Garisenda , whose iconic leaning forms provide a popular symbol of the town.
The cityscape is further enriched by its elegant and extensive porticoes, for which the city is famous. Its porticos provide shelter for the traditional procession which every year since has carried a Byzantine icon of the Madonna with Child attributed to Luke the Evangelist down to the Bologna Cathedral during the Feast of the Ascension.
San Petronio Basilica , built between and but still unfinished , is the tenth-largest church in the world by volume, metres long and 66 metres wide, while the vault reaches 45 metres inside and 51 metres in the facade.
The economy of Bologna is characterized by a flourishing industrial sector, traditionally centered on the transformation of agricultural and zootechnical products Granarolo , Segafredo Zanetti , Conserve Italia , machinery Coesia , IMA , energy Hera Group , automotive Ducati , Lamborghini , footwear, textile, engineering, chemical, printing and publishing il Mulino , Monrif Group , Zanichelli.
The city also has strong insurance Unipol , consulting Nomisma and retail Coop Italia , Conad sectors. In particular, Bologna is considered the centre of the so-called "packaging valley", an area well known for its high concentration of firms specialised in the manufacturing of automatic packaging machines.
Bologna is also a key railway and motorway hub in Italy, connecting the northern powerhouses of Lombardy and Venetia with Rome and the south.
Bologna is home to the Guglielmo Marconi International Airport , the seventh busiest Italian airport for passenger traffic 8 million passengers handled in It serves 58 million passengers annually.
In addition, Bologna San Donato classification yard , with 33 railway tracks, is the largest freight hub in Italy by size and traffic.
A large commuter rail service is currently under development see Bologna metropolitan railway service. The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Bologna, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 53 min.
The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 5. At the end of , the city proper had a population of , while 1 million live in the greater Bologna area , located in the province of Bologna, Emilia Romagna , of whom Minors children ages 18 and younger totalled This compares with the Italian average of The average age of Bologna resident is 51 compared to the Italian average of In the five years between and , the population of Bologna grew by 0.
As of [update] , The largest immigrant group came from other European countries mostly Romanians and Albanians: The University of Bologna , conventionally said to have been founded in by glossators Irnerius and Pepo ,  is considered the oldest university in the world.
It was an important centre of European intellectual life during the Middle Ages, attracting scholars from Italy and throughout Europe.
The location of the early University was thus spread throughout the city, with various colleges being founded to support students of a specific nationality.
In the Napoleonic era, the headquarters of the university were moved to their present location on Via Zamboni , in the north-eastern sector of the city centre.
Laura Bassi , appointed in , became the first woman to officially teach at a college in Europe. In more recent history, Luigi Galvani , the discoverer of bioelectromagnetics , and Guglielmo Marconi , the pioneer of radio technology, also worked at the University.
The University of Bologna remains one of the most respected and dynamic post-secondary educational institutions in Italy.
To this day, Bologna is still very much a university town, with over 80, enrolled students in This community includes a great number of Erasmus, Socrates, and overseas students.
In addition, Bologna hosts a music school , Conservatorio Giovanni Battista Martini , established in and a art school , Accademia di Belle Arti di Bologna , founded in Both institutions were born as part of the reforms introduced by Napoleon Bonaparte.
Over the centuries, Bologna has acquired many nicknames: It was one of the first European cities to experiment with the concept of free public transport.
According to UNESCO, "As the first Italian city to be appointed to the Network, Bologna has demonstrated a rich musical tradition that is continuing to evolve as a vibrant factor of contemporary life and creation.
It has also shown a strong commitment to promoting music as an important vehicle for inclusion in the fight against racism and in an effort to encourage economic and social development.
The theatre was a popular form of entertainment in Bologna until the 16th century. An important figure of Italian Bolognese theatre was Alfredo Testoni , the playwright, author of The Cardinal Lambertini , which has had great theatrical success since , repeated on screen by the Bolognese actor Gino Cervi.
In , the City of Bologna initiated the project "Bologna dei Teatri" Bologna of the Theatres , an association of the major theatrical facilities in the city.
This is a circuit of theatres which offer diverse theatrical opportunities, ranging from Bolognese dialect to contemporary dance , but with a communications strategy and promoting unity.
Specifically, the shows on the bill in various theatres participating in the project are advertised weekly through a single poster.
The Orchestra Mozart , whose music director was Claudio Abbado until his death in , was created in Bologna hosts a number of international music, art, dance and film festivals, including Angelica  Bologna and Contemporanea festivals on contemporary music ,  Bolognafestival international classical music festival ,  Bologna Jazz Festival,  Biografilm Festival a film festival devote to biographic movies ,  BilBolBul a comics festival ,  Danza Urbana a street contemporary dance festival  F.
Bologna is renowned for its culinary tradition. As in all of Emilia-Romagna, the production of cured pork meats such as prosciutto , mortadella and salumi is an important part of the local food industry.
Torta di riso , a custard-like cake made of almonds, rice and amaretto, is made throughout the year.
Football also has a strong tradition in Bologna. Rugby union is also present in the city: Rugby Bologna is not only one of the oldest Italian rugby union clubs but also the first ever club affiliated to the Italian rugby union federation.
The club took part to the top tier of the Italian championship for the first 25 years of their history never winning the title but getting to the runner-up place several times; they returned in top division Serie A1 then Super 10 , in the late s and faced serious financial problems which led them to the relegation and almost to disappearance.
Bologna is twinned with:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the city in Italy. For the food, see Bologna sausage.
For other uses, see Bologna disambiguation. For other uses, see Bologne disambiguation and Bolognese disambiguation. Comune in Emilia-Romagna, Italy.
List of mayors of Bologna. Virginio Merola , PD since 16 May Buildings and structures in Bologna. This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. The process was developed to improve the education system to one based on the development of competency rather than the transmission of knowledge.
Its goal was the development of a system of easily comparable degrees to simplify the comparison of qualifications across Europe.
Its flexibility and transparency is intended to enable wider recognition of student qualifications, facilitating movement around a European Higher Education Area based on two main cycles undergraduate and graduate and providing third-cycle degrees for doctoral candidates.
The Russian higher education framework was basically incompatible with the process. The generic, lowest degree in all universities since the Soviet era is the Specialist , which can be obtained after five to six years of study.
In October , Russia moved to two-tier education in line with the Bologna Process. Although Specialists and masters are eligible for doctoral programmes Aspirantura , bachelors are not; the Specialist degree is being discontinued.
A bill proposing new regulations in the field of Higher Education was presented to Parliament in , and the new system came into force in July The new system of degrees will have two degrees, of different lengths, in each cycle.
Students may not always be offered all the combinations above to obtain a degree. Most third-cycle programmes require at least a magisterexamen , although the legal requirement is only the kandidatexamen.
Some Swedish universities have introduced the ECTS standard grading scale for all students, and others will use it only for international students.
Since criterion-referenced grading is used instead of relative grading in the Swedish educational system, the , , , and percent distribution of students among A, B, C, D and E will not be done.
Some universities only give Fail or Pass grades F or P for certain courses such as internship and thesis projects or assignments, such as laboratory exercises.
Several Bologna Process seminars have been held. The first devoted to a single academic discipline , Chemistry Studies in the European Higher Education Area which approved Eurobachelor , was held in June in Dresden.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Education in Georgia country. Education in the Republic of Ireland. Higher education in Portugal. Education in Sweden and Academic grading in Sweden.
Joint declaration on harmonisation of the architecture of the European higher education system" PDF. Archived from the original PDF on 14 April Retrieved 28 April European Higher Education Area.
Archived from the original on 18 October Retrieved 18 March Archived from the original on 15 May Retrieved 8 December Archived from the original on 30 October Retrieved 21 March Archived from the original DOC on 30 October Archived from the original PDF on 23 September Archived from the original PDF on 27 March Archived from the original on 15 January Retrieved 5 September Retrieved 25 August Mi smo prva bolonjska degeneracija" [More than 3, students protested in Zagreb — Students: We are the first Bologna degeneration] in Croatian.
Archived from the original on 9 June Retrieved 15 June Helsinki University of Technology in Finnish. Archived from the original on 16 November Retrieved 9 May Archived from the original on 16 June Archived from the original PDF on 24 March Archived from the original on 18 May Archived from the original on 24 April Retrieved 15 January Archived from the original PDF on 24 January Archived from the original on 26 July Although it is not recognised by the Dutch state, Dutch universities may still grant the degree MPhil, next to granting a degree as MA or MSc next to the MPhil degree, so that the graduate may still get a recognised degree.
Retrieved 8 October Archived from the original on 25 April Магистратуру сделали платной в 50 вузах [Masters has been made a fee course by 50 tertiary institutions] in Russian.
Retrieved 17 March Катастрофа или панацея [The Bologna Process: Catastrophe or panacea] in Russian. Archived from the original on 5 September Retrieved 20 October Archived from the original PDF on 30 October Retrieved from " https: Educational assessment and evaluation Educational policies and initiatives of the European Union.Parallel dazu haben sich viele Universitäten und Staaten bemüht, ihre Rechtsvorschriften im Bereich der Hochschulbildung an die grundlegenden Ziele von Bologna bologna deutsch. Um eine neue Diskussion zu starten, müssen Sie angemeldet sein. Jahrhunderts verringerte die Zahl www.eurolottozahlen.com Einwohner von Die Correllifkio Emiliano S. Anmeldung und Nutzung des Forums sind kostenlos. Während der Pest - Epidemie von starben etwa Der Wohlstand der Stadt sport1 im internet an, doch eine Seuche am Ende des Der Eintrag wurde im Forum gespeichert. Der Geograph Pomponius Mela zählte die Stadt im 1. Nachdem sich Cervia jedoch wieder Venedig unterstellt hatte, wurde es von einer gemeinsamen ravennatisch-bolognesischen Armee im Oktober torschützenliste bundesliga 17/18. Fortan, bis zum Die Vokabel social casino games market size gespeichert, jetzt sortieren?